Lose Fat Faster Before Breakfast

Jan. 24, 2013 — People can burn up to 20% more body fat by exercising in the morning on an empty stomach, according to new research from Northumbria University.


 

In a study published online in theBritish Journal of Nutrition on January 24, academics sought to find out whether the known benefits of exercising after an overnight fast were undermined by an increased appetite and eating more food later in the day.

Researchers, led by Dr Emma Stevenson and PhD student Javier Gonzalez, asked twelve physically active male participants to perform a bout of treadmill exercise at 10am, either after they had eaten breakfast or in a fasted state having not eaten since the evening before.

Following the exercise all participants were given a chocolate milkshake recovery drink. Later in the day, participants were provided with a pasta lunch which they were asked to consume until they felt ‘comfortably full’. Their lunchtime consumption of energy and fat was assessed and calculated, taking into account the amount of energy and fat burned during the morning period.

The researchers discovered that those who had exercised in the morning did not consume additional calories or experience increased appetite during the day to compensate for their earlier activity.

They also found that those who had exercised in a fasted state burned almost 20% more fat compared to those who had consumed breakfast before their workout. This means that performing exercise on an empty stomach provides the most desirable outcome for fat loss.

Javier Gonzalez, who is currently undertaking a PhD in Exercise and Metabolism, said: “In order to lose body fat we need to use more fat than we consume. Exercise increases the total amount of energy we expend and a greater proportion of this energy comes from existing fat if the exercise is performed after an overnight fast.

“Our results show that exercise does not increase your appetite, hunger or food consumption later in the day and to get the most out of your session it may be optimal to perform this after an overnight fast.”

Dr Emma Stevenson, Senior Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Nutrition and Associate Director of Northumbria University’s Brain, Performance and Nutrition Research Centre, added: “This research is very important in helping to provide practical guidelines relating to food intake to individuals who are exercising to maximise fat mass loss. It must be highlighted that this is a short-term study and we can only speculate on the longer term outcomes of such nutritional practices.”

 

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided byNorthumbria University.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.


Journal Reference:

  1. Javier T. Gonzalez, Rachel C. Veasey, Penny L. S. Rumbold, Emma J. Stevenson. Breakfast and exercise contingently affect postprandial metabolism and energy balance in physically active malesBritish Journal of Nutrition, 2013; : 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114512005582
Northumbria University (2013, January 24). Lose fat faster before breakfast. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130124091425.htm
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Is Athleticism Linked to Brain Size? Exercise-Loving Mice Have Larger Midbrains

Jan. 17, 2013 — Is athleticism linked to brain size? To find out, researchers at the University of California, Riverside performed laboratory experiments on house mice and found that mice that have been bred for dozens of generations to be more exercise-loving have larger midbrains than those that have not been selectively bred this way.

This image shows a 3-D reconstruction of a mouse brain based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The forebrain is seen in green, the midbrain in yellow and the cerebellum in orange. The forebrain region has been made partially transparent to show the underlying regions (from left to right, the hippocampus and caudate). (Credit: Garland Lab, UC Riverside)

Theodore Garland’s lab measured the brain mass of these uniquely athletic house mice, bred for high voluntary wheel-running, and analyzed their high-resolution brain images. The researchers found that the volume of the midbrain — a small region of the brain that relays information for the visual, auditory, and motor systems — in the bred-for-athleticism mice was nearly 13 percent larger than the midbrain volume in the control or “regular” mice.

“To our knowledge, this is the first example in which selection for a particular mammalian behavior — high voluntary wheel running in house mice in our set of experiments — has been shown to result in a change in size of a specific brain region,” said Garland, a professor of biology and the principal investigator of the research project.

Study results appeared online Jan. 16 in The Journal of Experimental Biology.

In Garland’s lab, selection for high voluntary wheel running in lab house mice has been ongoing for nearly 20 years — or more than 65 generations of house mice. To analyze brain mass and volume on independent samples of house mice, the researchers dissected the brains into two different regions, the cerebellum, a region of the brain crucial for controlling movement, and the non-cerebellar areas. They then weighed these sections separately.

The cerebellum is important for coordination. The midbrain, a part of the non-cerebellar area that contains a variety of sensory and motor nuclei, is essential for reward learning, motivation and reinforcing behavior. Previously, species of mammals and birds with larger brains have been shown to have higher survivability in novel environments.

The researchers found that compared to regular mice, those mice that had been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running had significantly greater midbrain volume as well as larger non-cerebellar brain mass, but not larger cerebella or total brain mass.

The primary question the researchers sought to answer in their study is whether selection on a particular behavioral trait, such as voluntary exercise, using an experimental evolution paradigm, has resulted in a change in brain size. An additional question they posed is whether any change in brain size involves the entire brain or is “mosaic,” that is, involving only a section or some sections of the brain.

“Our finding that mice bred for high levels of voluntary exercise have an enlarged non-cerebellar brain mass and an enlarged midbrain, but do not show a statistically significant increase in overall brain mass or volume supports the mosaic theory of brain evolution,” Garland said.

What implications the current research has for humans is not immediately clear.

“It is possible that individual differences in the propensity or ability for exercise in humans are associated with individual differences in the size of the midbrain, but no one has studied that,” Garland said. “If it were possible to take MRIs of babies’ midbrains before these babies started ‘exercising’ and then follow these babies through life, it may be that inherent, genetically-based differences in midbrain size detected soon after birth will influence how much they would be likely to exercise as adults.”

 

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided byUniversity of California – Riverside. The original article was written by Iqbal Pittalwala.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.


Journal Reference:

  1. E. M. Kolb, E. L. Rezende, L. Holness, A. Radtke, S. K. Lee, A. Obenaus, T. Garland. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running have larger midbrains: support for the mosaic model of brain evolution.Journal of Experimental Biology, 2013; 216 (3): 515 DOI:10.1242/jeb.076000
University of California – Riverside (2013, January 17). Is athleticism linked to brain size? Exercise-loving mice have larger midbrains.ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130117133319.htm

For Those Short On Time, Aerobic, Not Resistance, Exercise Is Best Bet for Weight And Fat Loss

Jan. 2, 2013 — A new study led by North Carolina researchers has found that when it comes to weight- and fat loss, aerobic training is better than resistance training. The study is believed to the largest randomized trial to directly compare changes in body composition induced by comparable amounts of time spent doing aerobic and resistant training, or both in combination, among previously inactive overweight or obese non-diabetic adults.


 

The study is entitled “Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults”. It is published in the December 2012 edition of the Journal of Applied Physiology published by the American Physiological Society.

Methodology

A total of 234 previously sedentary overweight or obese males and females, age 18-70 years of age, were enrolled in one of three eight-month supervised protocols: aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT), or a combination (AT/RT). Of the total, 119 participants completed the trials and had complete data for the variables of interest in the article.

Those assigned to aerobic training exercised vigorously, at about 70-85% of maximum heart rate. They exercise approximately 45 minutes three days per week throughout the study period.

Individuals assigned to resistance training also exercised three days a week, completing three sets of 8-12 reps on eight resistance machines that targeted all major muscle groups. Resistance was increased throughout the study to maintain a steady level of challenge as the participants gained strength.

Individuals who were assigned to AT/RT performed all the exercises assigned to both AT and RT groups. At the end of study each enrollee was assessed for weight, body composition, waist circumference, cardiopulmonary fitness and strength compared to their baseline.

Key Findings and Conclusions

The researchers found:

• The groups assigned to aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training lost more weight than those that did resistance training only. In fact, those who did resistance training only actually gained weight due to an increase in lean body mass.

• Fat mass and waist circumference significantly decreased in the AT and AT/RT groups, but were not altered in RT. However, measures of lean body mass significantly increased in RT and AT/RT, but not in AT. The finding suggest that aerobic exercise is more effective in reducing these measures.

• Lean body mass increased with both RT and AT/RT, but not AT. Having the benefit to of both modes of exercise allowed AT/RT to decrease body fat percent significantly more than either AT or RT due to decreased fat mass combined with increased lean body mass.

Importance of the Findings

According to Leslie H. Willis, an exercise physiologist at Duke University Medical Center and the study’s lead author, “Given our observations, it may be time to seriously reconsider the conventional wisdom that resistance training alone can lead to weight and fat loss.”

Willis added, “If increasing muscle mass and strength is a goal, then resistance training is required. However, the majority of Americans could experience health benefits due to weight and fat loss. The best option in that case, given limited time for exercise, is to focus on aerobic training. When you lose fat, it is likely you are losing visceral fat, which is known to be associated with cardiovascular and other health benefits.”

In addition to Leslie Willis, the study was conducted by Cris A. Slentz, Lori A. Bateman, Lucy W. Piner, Connie W. Bales and William E. Kraus of the Duke University Medical Center; and Joseph A Hourmard and A. Tamlyn Shields of East Carolina University.


Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided byAmerican Physiological Society (APS), via Newswise.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.


Journal Reference:

  1. L. H. Willis, C. A. Slentz, L. A. Bateman, A. T. Shields, L. W. Piner, C. W. Bales, J. A. Houmard, W. E. Kraus. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adultsJournal of Applied Physiology, 2012; 113 (12): 1831 DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.01370.2011
 

 

American Physiological Society (APS) (2013, January 2). For those short on time, aerobic, not resistance, exercise is best bet for weight- and fat loss. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 3, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130102172945.htm